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Vaccines can be powerful tools for preventing potential outbreaks of epidemic infectious diseases from becoming humanitarian crises

Developing these vaccines requires investment.

However, evidence on what it would cost to successfully develop a sound epidemic infectious disease vaccine portfolio is scarce.

This is partly because of a paucity of explicit, publicly available cost data. In addition, there is little agreement across global vaccine development funders on which epidemic infectious disease investments should be prioritised, which stems from an absence of global research and development portfolio strategy and coordination.

In response to the 2014 Ebola epidemic in west Africa, WHO prioritised 11 pathogens that are most likely to cause severe outbreaks in the near future:

Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, chikungunya, Ebola, Lassa, Marburg, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Nipah, Rift Valley fever, severe acute respiratory syndrome, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, and Zika. WHO has now updated this list,

however all 11 diseases remain of considerable epidemic preparedness importance.

In general, vaccine development from discovery to licensure