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Cohort studies from Europe and North America show that people who use clean intermittent self-catheterisation (CISC) to empty their bladders, possibly due to neurological disease such as multiple sclerosis or failure of urinary sphincter relaxation, have an average prevalence of repeated symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) of 25%.1 Factors that could increase the risk of UTIs include being female, having neurological bladder dysfunction, and having bacterial colonisation of the urine.2 Prevention of UTIs with continuous low-dose antibiotic prophylaxis has been tested in five previous trials involving 363 participants that were summarised in a Cochrane review.3 Results were…………. see more https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(18)30279-2/fulltext