Alcohol consumption guidelines vary substantially across the globe.1, 2 In the USA, for example, an upper limit of 196 g per week (about 11 standard UK glasses of wine or pints of beer per week) is recommended for men, and an upper limit of 98 g per week is recommended for women.1 Similar recommendations apply in Canada and Sweden.2 By contrast, guidelines in Italy, Portugal, and Spain recommend low-risk limits almost 50% higher than these.1, 2 At the other extreme, UK guidelines recommend low-risk limits for men almost half that recommended by US guidelines.1, 2

Such variation in policy might reflect ambiguity about drinking risk thresholds associated with the lowest risk of mortality,3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 as well as uncertainty about the specific consequences of alcohol consumption, including those related to cardiovascular disease subtypes. For example, recent studies have challenged the concept that moderate alcohol consumption is universally associated with ……….. continue reading