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Adequate public health and service delivery planning requires reliable information about contemporary population-level disease incidence. Policies need to consider both standardised rates, which describe disease incidence independently of changes in population, and absolute numbers of patients affected, which describe the impact of the disease on the population and services of interest.

Estimates of heart failure incidence and its temporal trends, even in high-income countries, are scarce and inconsistent.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Previous studies have frequently been based on selected cohorts,2, 3, 4, 6 which may not represent the general population. Other studies have restricted case identification to those made in general practice consultations7 or hospital admissions.8, 9 However, it is only by considering presentations across the whole spectrum of………. continue reading http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)32520-5/fulltext?elsca1=etoc