Assessment of death rates by cause has been an essential component of tracking progress in global health. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) emphasised child, maternal, and infectious disease mortality and spurred investments that contributed to a rapid decline in mortality from these sources, although these have not been universally achieved at the same level.1, 2 Progress in reducing the disabling outcomes of disease has been much slower.3 The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) estimated a modest 2·1% reduction in the age-standardised rate of years lived with disability (YLDs) for all causes compared with a 22·7% reduction in age-standardised rates of years of life lost (YLLs) for all causes between 2005 and 2015.3 The slower progress in addressing non-fatal compared with…… continued to read